There are many preventative measures that should be taken into consideration to avoid risks associated with collapsing structures, falling objects (debris, bricks, dropped tools) and flying objects (shards of wood and metal, for instance), and the risk of people accidentally hitting their heads on items such as exposed timbers and low scaffolding.

Wearing a hard hat is an extremely necessary last line of defence in avoiding head injuries because, even with the best safety precautions, accidents will happen, as the following examples illustrate.

A self-employed roofer was killed when he tripped and fell while carrying a ladder along a path. It seems that he struck his head as he fell. There were no obvious tripping hazards in the vicinity.
An agency employee working on a large house-build construction site was killed when he was struck by some fire-resistant doors, stacked on end. He stumbled as he stood back, causing the doors to strike him on the head, trapping him against the adjacent wall.
Another self-employed contractor struck his head hard on part of a scaffold. He was not wearing a safety helmet. He complained of headaches for some weeks after the accident and died a month later.

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